What is metal+plastic+glass?We have done an experiment for 17 years to study ...
Author:Institute of Physics of the Ch Time:2022.09.30
Metal and plastic are widely used in daily life. Now see if there are countless metal products with money and meals?
There are countless plastic products?
After dinner, learn more knowledge. Think about why metal and plastic can be applied to all aspects of life on a large scale?
Generally, metal has a relatively high melting point and high mechanical strength. Humans have used metal materials a long time ago, and they can be traced back to the bronze era with records of human civilization.
Compared with the early stones, metal copper and metal iron are more advanced materials. The reason why bronze and iron can replace stone tools is that they have the characteristics of superior mechanical properties and easy smelting and processing than stone tools. Therefore, the first industrial revolution is also closely related to the large -scale use of steel.
Compared with metal, plastic is just the material that has begun to rise in the early 20th century. Because deformation and processing performance are very good, large -scale use has now been realized.
Plastic is an atomic discharge irregular polymer amorphous material, and its softening point is called glass transition temperature. Because plastic glass transition temperature is usually near room temperature, and some are even lower than room temperature, plastic can be processed near room temperature. The characteristics of low deformation temperature and strong deformation capacity of plastic make plastic can be widely used in daily life and industrial production after invention.
Therefore, the factors that determine the prospects of the material not only require the unique physical and chemical properties of the material (such as metal), but also require the material to have excellent processing and deformation (such as plastic).
Metals and plastic are two types of almost contradictory materials: the strength of metals is much higher than that of plastic, but the processing performance is worse than that of plastic. Therefore, is it possible to develop a material with the intensity of existing metal and excellent processing performance of plastic?
The answer is yes. In May 2005, the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences reported a new metal material with the strength of metal and the excellent processing performance of plastic.
This material has the same strength as aluminum -magnesium alloy at room temperature, but when the temperature rises to the temperature of the boiling water, it shows various processing deformation behaviors such as stretching, compression, bending, and pressing. It is precisely because the nature of the general metal is the same as that of the plastic. This material is called "metal plastic".
Unlike the common metal in life, metal plastic is not a crystal, but an amorphous structure. It is a type of amorphous alloy. The arrangement of the atoms such as steel and aluminum alloy that is often exposed to the micro -levels is symmetrical, and the atomic discharge of the ingredients does not have any cyclical structure, which is a complex and disorderly system.
The left figure is the unspeutable copper cricket alloy structure simulated by the computer, and the particle arrangement is disorderly gathered; the picture on the right is the crystal copper cricket alloy structure, and the particle arrangement is very regular
The types of amorphous solid materials are actually very rich and there are many types. We live in a world filled with amorphous solids. The materials that people see daily: plastic, glass, asphalt, amber, rubber, etc. are all non -crystal solids.
As an disorderly inorganic amorphous substance, glass also plays an important role in the development of human civilization. For example, a cup that is used every day:
For example, the telescope of the development cornerstone of modern science and optical lenses of microscope:
For example, the art design source of architecture:
For example, it is the following fiber (using extremely high purity glass media to transmit optical waves), so that this push for more people can see
African crystal solid also has characteristics that are different from crystals:
1. African crystal is sub -stable. When the non -crystal material is warmed, the non -crystal evolution will evolve towards balanced state, and its physical properties and atomic discharge structure will change over time. Therefore, when using an amorphous material The stability factor (whether the physical properties remain stable within a certain period of time).
The free comparison chart of amorphous and crystals, sub -stable non -crystal state is in energy unstable state
2. The physical properties of amorphous substances. Crystals have crystal shaft orientation, with various opposite sex; non -crystal has no crystal orientation, and macro manifestations are the same sex, just like the crushed non -crystal glass appearance has no certain rules.
3. There is no exact melting point of amorphous solid. The crystal has a certain melting point at normal temperature, and the non -crystal does not have an exact melting point. Plastic and glass heating are gradually softening and turning into melts. When the melt is cooled, if the cold speed is higher than the cold speed of the crystal, the melt will form an amorphous solid near a certain temperature. This temperature is called the glass transition temperature point.
The path diagram of the liquid formation of cold liquid, amorphous, and crystal
From the felding point of the melting liquid to the glass to change temperature. The adhesive state, with a good super plasticity ability, can use external forces to make permanent deformation of non -crystals.
After heating the same type of metal plastics to the temperature of the cold solution area, it can also be shaped by blowing plastic method to achieve a very high deformation volume.
Bloody -based amorphous alloys formed by blowing plastic
So how is this metal plastic designed?
Infertile alloy is naturally a strange material. On the one hand, at room temperature or below the glass transition temperature, it has a mechanical strength that is higher than ordinary metal materials.金 Base block of owre alloy mobile phone framework
On the other hand, after heating enters the cold liquid interval, it becomes a good deformation ability like viscous fluid.
The micron -level structure formed after the cooling fluid phase area is formed after the micro -nano -forming of the platinum base
Therefore, from the essence of amorphous substances, polymer plastic is a type of low -glass transformation temperature compared to amplifier plastic. At room temperature. Compared with plastic, the temperature of most amorphous alloy's glass transition temperature is very high (generally in the range of 300 degrees Celsius to 600 degrees Celsius).
Therefore, for amorphous glass materials, glass transition temperature T is one of the most important performance parameters and indicators. This temperature directly determines the temperature and deformation processing temperature of the glass material.
Within the range of strength and glass transition temperature, there is a separated interval between polymer plastic and amorphous alloys. This is the original design idea of metal plastic materials, that is, the development of amplifier in this unique area new material. In other words, this material has the same low glass transition temperature TG as the plastic, and also has the high intensity of typical metal materials
According to such metal plastic materials design ideas, the relationship between the glass transition temperature in the amorphous alloy and the elastic modulus of amorphous alloy (the ability to resist elasticity deformation) and the amorphous alloy elastic modulus and the amorphous alloy composition element mold In the relationship between quantity, first of all, the CEALCU of the metal plastic system was found in the genus of the 的, and the glass transition temperature could be as low as 68 degrees Celsius.
CE70AL10CU20 metal plastic with a glass transition temperature of 68 degrees Celsius can be easily bent in boiling water
The "BMG" letter (block of block of the block) of the CE70AL10CU20 metal plastic is easily bent in the boiling water
可以 Facilities can easily stretch, compress, bend, and press various plastic deformation in the boiling water. They also have a wide interval between the cold solution. Essence
In addition, there is a series of metal plastics of calcium lithium matrix, cymbal, and zinc substrates being developed, and they can deform near the temperature of the boiling water.
However, it is mentioned earlier that amorphous alloys are a sub -stable alloy, which evolved to balanced state over time. Metal plastic is a type of amorphous alloy, so we must consider the stability of this material.
If it is not deep enough to understand from its balanced state, a physicist at Queensland University in Australia in order to prove that "asphalt is liquid rather than solid" (because near room temperature, the viscosity coefficient of asphalt is very high, and the particles are in a limited time in a limited time. It will be difficult to change the position to form a new configuration). He heated the asphalt and pour it into a seal glass funnel. After the asphalt is completely solidified, cut the lower end of the funnel and start to record a drop of asphalt dripping time. The experiment proved that the first drop of asphalt dripped for 8 years. Therefore, sometimes it is not easy to observe at a relatively short -term scale observation of the evolution of amorphous substances, so it is often ignored.
Australian University of Queensland, Parcel asphalt Drop Experimental Device 9
To what extent can the stability of amorphous substances be?
For example, amber is a typical amorphous substance (an amorphous sugar that can seal protein for a long time), which is very stable. At the beginning of the formation of amber, the ancient animals and plants in ancient times were sealed in it. Due to the good preservation effect of amorphous substances, the creatures of millions of years ago and its scenes at the time could be preserved. In this way, a certain time and space scene of millions of years ago cited the scene and preserved it with its unparalleled stability.
The amorphous alloys of some ingredients are prone to major changes to the balanced state when heating, that is, the amorphous is gradually becoming crystal.
Heating at a certain temperature makes ZR46CU46AL8 amorphous alloys gradually precipitates crystals over time, and the crystals are slowly growing (such as blue arrows)
Therefore, some amorphous systems are easily transformed into crystals, and some systems are not easy to transform into crystals, which derives a problem: Is there a unique energy at the lowest energy of a given disorderly disorder system? Just like an amorphous substance amber, its physical properties can not change significantly during the evolution of tens of millions of years.
At present, the main characteristics of this high -stability glass with high stability are:
The glass transition temperature increases. The higher the temperature of the glass transition, it means that the system requires more energy to activate the molecular movement, that is, the higher the stability of the system, the more difficult it is to change to the crystal.
The density increases. The increase in density is a direct macro reflection that is densely arranged by ultra -stable glass particles.
Elasticity and intensity are improved. Due to the dense arrangement of ultra -stable glass particles, the ability to resist external force deformation also improves accordingly.
Due to the high stability of the super -stable metal glass, it has the physical characteristics of conventional crystals and amproofs that does not have it. It has wearable characteristics and can be applied to flexible electronic devices
Because metal plastic can be easily deformed in boiling water, it can be placed in the temperature of the room temperature to cause huge changes to the micro -structural evolution and energy state of metal plastics. So is the metal plastic that has been placed in room temperature for a long time becomes a more stable crystal, or is it like amber super stable substance? What are the changes in room temperature in room temperature in room temperature in 2005?
Experiments found that the aging amorphous metal plastic sample after the aging of the room temperature in 17.7 years still maintains the perfect amorphous state, which has not transformed into a crystal, showing a strong anti -crystallization ability. alloy.
17.7.7 The transmitted electron microscopy image of the cymbal amorphous metal plastic after the room temperature, the characteristics of the atomic disorderly discharge, did not find an orderly crystal structure
Compared with other types of amorphous alloys, the capacity of plastic against crystals is very strong. It is close to ultra -stable glass, which can hinder the occurrence of nuclear and crystalline behaviors in the process of relaxation. And 17.7 years of room temperature, the aging -based non -crystal metal plastic needs to be heated to higher temperatures to change to the liquid.
Comparing the crystal nuclear rate of the formation of the CE-radical non-crystal alloys and other alloy systems, the crystal rate of the crystal of the crystal of the crystals of the 铈 has a very low nuclear rate, showing a strong stability
17.7 The aging of the cymbal non -crystal metal plastic after the room temperature increased by 27K, which shows that the thermodynamic stability has been significantly improved. Long -term aging has made it a super -stable amorphous alloy
Why does the 铈 铈 plastic have been plastic for a long time and turned into ultra -stable glass without changing to the crystal?
To explain this problem, we do a metaphor here. The potential energy of the atomic configuration in amorphous substances is just like the gravity potential energy of the real Zhongshan land. The position of the mountain peak corresponds to high -energy configuration, and the position of the valley corresponds to low -energy configuration. Atomic configuration evolves over time to low energy configuration, just like water flows to the valley over time.
的 The energy potential chart of the foundation of the foundation has a large energy valley, and the energy potential barrier that is easy to transform to the crystal is composed of multiple different energy valleys. To the position of the crystal.的 The micro -dynamics of the fundamental plastic are relatively uniform. This micro -configuration characteristics enable the iliac -based plastic to continue to quickly and quickly reach the lower energy state through the transition between the small canal, that is, the super -stable glass state.
属 Facilities belong to the strong glass system in the figure above, which helps it to relax and relax itly to the super -stable glass state.
Because metal plastic materials have unique physical and chemical properties, they have application value and potential in different fields. Excellent processing deformation ability is the common characteristics of metal plastic materials, which is very beneficial for micro -plastic molding.
The gear object is observed on the fingers and the gear image observed under the electronic microscope
It has been more than ten years since the discovery of the iliacity plastic. At present, metal plastics have been further developed as a new type of material. Multiple alloy systems have found metal plastic materials, which shows great application potential in micro -nano -processing and devices.
Finally, let's summarize the characteristics of metal plastic:
Metal -like strength performance;
Plastic -like molding ability;
Glass -like disorderly structure.
Finally, print a logo with metal plastic ~
Phys. Rev. Lett. 94（2005 ）205502Materials Science and Engineering R 100 (2016) 1–69Progress in Physics, 2013, 33(5): 177 3 51.https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/ Tnv0lhntv9zzdzwrhzrbgaq natural magazine, 2018,40 (03): 157-168. Materials, 2018, 11: 2338adv. Mater. 2011, 23, 461–476Acta Phys. Sin. Vol. 66, No. 176411http: == en: wikipedia: ORG = Wiki = PitchDropexperentActa Materialia 149 (2018) 108-118acta Phys. Sin. Vol. 66, No. 176108Appl. Lett. 110 (2017) 031901 Edit:
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