Thirty years of self -reliance and self -reliance, casting manned spacecraft's gold medal motivation

Author:Guangming Daily client Time:2022.09.21

The engine to the rocket and the spacecraft, just like the heart to the human body. Without the power of the engine, the advanced rockets and astronauts cannot win space.

The 801 of the Sixth Hospital of Aerospace Science and Technology Group is a research unit specializing in the development of small and medium -sized liquid rocket engines and space promotion systems. Various products are widely used in manned aerospace, satellite, missile weapons, carrier rockets, and deep space detection.

In my country's manned space engineering, 801 undertakes the manned spacecraft promotion system and the integration of freight ships to supplement the promotion system, space laboratory integration can supplement the promotion system, space station core compartment integrated, and the advancement system can be added. The space station asked the development task of all manned spacecraft promotion systems such as the Tiangtian Experimental Curring and the Dream Sky Experimental Curdine Promotion System. He made important contributions.

Starting from zero, we must catch up with the world's advanced level

In the late 1980s, when the 801 was in a low valley with a single mission and a serious lack of development tasks, when the country was reluctant, the state included the manned spaceflight field in the "863" plan and began the demonstration of China's manned aerospace project. my country's manned space career ushered in a new dawn in the "Shuguang" nearly 20 years later, which also made 801, which seemed to survive in adversity, to see a front line.

Develop aerospace, the power first. Towards the higher and deeper spaces, it is inseparable from the improvement of the rocket's loading capacity, and it is also inseparable from the blessing of the driving force for space. The space engine is the household product of 801. Therefore, when the "863" plan proposed the subject of manned aerospace research, the 801 not only saw development opportunities, the opportunity must not be lost, but also felt that the space promotion motivation was incomparable in the promotion of my country's manned space industry to catch up with the world's advanced level.

Immediately, 801 started to collect information, proactively carried out pre -research on the manned spacecraft's promotion system, and finally scored the Shenzhou spacecraft to promote the development task of the System of Systems when the manned spacecraft was established. As the old director Zang Jialiang said at the time, "I hope the stars, hope that the moon, and have worked for a lifetime of space. In his later years, he can participate in the manned aerospace project and be responsible for the development of the spacecraft to promote the system. This is both a honor and a responsibility."


The manned spaceflight is the process of "getting, staying, and returning". The first task was completed by the Rockets, and the latter two tasks were completed by the spacecraft to promote the sub -system. Therefore, advancing the sub -system is one of the most important sub -systems of the manned spacecraft. It is responsible for the gesture control, stability, adjustment of the spacecraft on the rail flight, the return of the return capsule, and the rail reserved track. Returning to all power functions of braking and emergency life is the source of the power of the spacecraft. Its reliability and safety are directly related to the success or failure of the flight task and the safety of astronauts.

To this end, 801 is equipped with 52 space engines for the Shenzhou spacecraft, with the smallest thrust of 5 cows, and the largest thrust of 2500 cows. Large and small engines provide different thrusts from different directions to ensure that the spacecraft has a degree and calmness in space in space.

As the engine with the largest thrust in the spacecraft promotion of the sub -system, the 2500 -bull engine is the key to the spacecraft "staying and returning". It must not only provide power for the spacecraft's rail transformation, but also to reduce brakes for the spacecraft, but also provide a life -saving escape guarantee for astronauts in case of danger, which is "key".

Although there is experience in developing satellites and carrier rocket -rail control engines, the maximum thrust developed by the 801 engine at that time was only 490 cows. The cooling design and so on have made higher requirements. This also led to the combustion instability of the 2500 -bull engine during the first ground test. The engine was instantly burned.

The 801 developed team to live in tight and difficult pressure, analyze the fault, check the data, and improve the engine head process. In the subsequent test, it has successfully verified the reliable and effective improvement of improvement measures, and the design of the design burning stable device is also designed. Make 2500 cattle engines the first "dynamic and stable" space engine in China, ensuring special requirements for high reliability and high security of the manned spacecraft.


In the rail complement, China Aerospace moves into the "space station era"

At 19:07 on April 27, 2017, Tianzhou -1 freight ships and Tiangong No. 2 Space Lab successfully completed the first pushing agent in the rail replenishment test. Breakthrough and mastered pushing agents are replenished in rail replenishment technology, filling the gaps in the field of aerospace in my country, and realizing a major technical leap in the field of space promotion. my country has become the second key technology that is independent and successfully applied to this key technology. Behind this is the completely independent and independent research that lasted more than ten years.

The so -called advancement agent replenishes the technology in the rail replenishment, which is "space refueling", that is, adding a pusher to the spacecraft flying to the track in space, thereby extending the spacecraft's flight time and breaking the spacecraft's flight life limit. It is a must -have technology for space station construction and long -term operation. Earlier, only Russia and the United States mastered this technology, and only Russia achieved applied application in orbit. The self -confident Chinese astronauts adhere to the "space refueling technology must be realized in their own hands", which overcome a series of key technologies in 10 years. To achieve the function of the rail supplementary plus, the core stand -alone machine is the gas pressure machine. This is also the most difficult single machine. Its role is to pump the booster gas of the promotional storage boxes into the gas cylinder, which is convenient for the storage box to receive the cargo spacecraft for the cargo spacecraft, and at the same time, it realizes the recycling of the industrial quality of the supercharged gas. For this reason, the compression ratio of the gas pressure machine has reached 100: 1.

During the development stage of the project prototype, 801 gave full play to the advantages of the simulation technology, established the system model of the air pressure machine, and fully identified the key points of multiple technologies of the gas pressure machine, continuously simulated the design parameters and iterates to ensure that the design source is reasonable and correct.

During the development process, the problems followed, and the team members were often black and white, and the rules of work and rest were completely disrupted. The piles of drawings on the office table, the noise of the laboratory's decibels, and the temporary lounge chairs in the assembly have become their "longest love companion".

In order to meet the long -term flight requirements of the space station, the newly -developed aircraft must meet various rigorous performance tests, and each time the life expectancy test is more than 1,000 hours. The 801 developed team has been fighting for more than 40 days in a row, and the working status of the test machine was monitored throughout the process. Finally, the key technical research and engineering development of the gas pressure machine was successfully completed.

One prerequisite for "space refueling" is to have the ability to repeatedly accept the injection of additional injection. To this end, 801 developed the largest domestic supplementary plus metal membrane box storage box, and the inner membrane box management device was provided to effectively realize the physical separation of gas and liquid. The storage box can be pushed and pushed and pushed like a accordion box. Such a supplementary device can accept hundreds of additions. In addition, the 801 was the first to promote and supplement the integrated promotion system design solution for the 801 shipping ship, which realized the maximum functional and maximum utilization of promotion agent resources.

In the development of the promotion agent supplementary system, 801 first proposed an integrated cargo spacecraft promotion system solution, which invented the "full oil filling+adaptive oil supplement" and the septum compressor that was not affected by the impact of weight loss. Promoting agent liquid floating seizure has laid a technical foundation for the manned space station project. This is an important support technology that ensures the smooth implementation of the "third step" strategy of manned aerospace engineering. It is of far -reaching significance for the aerospace dream that the aerospace person's unremitting pursuit.

Police non -toxic, break through the return cabin to reuse important technologies

Nitrates (Han) Bidth -free single -group element can storage space engine, which has outstanding advantages such as non -toxic, non -pollution, density, high -ruming, and systematic easy -to -use, and can be reused. The cutting -edge research direction of the promotion system is also the main way to replace conventional highly toxic pusher propellars.

The innovation of the new -generation manned spacecraft returning compartment in 801 adopts the innovation of the HAN basin unilateral element for promotion technology. This is one of the important technologies to achieve reusable use of the return capsule, and the best promotion system choice to ensure the health of astronauts.

As early as in the late 1990s, when the Shenzhou spacecraft returned to the cabin, in order to prevent the pushing agent leakage of the safety risks of astronauts, 801 proposed a non -toxic HAN -based engine. However, at that time, the HAN -based engine technology was immature, and this plan was helplessly abandoned.

In May 2014, 801 launched a new generation of multi -purpose manned spacecraft promotion system project demonstration work. For the consideration of reuse can be used in the future return capsule, the HAN base unilateral element return compartment promotion system technical solution was boldly proposed. Among them, the 400 -cow engine has become a prominent key technology due to the large thrust. The maximum thrust of similar engines that are still studying in the world at the same time does not exceed 200 cows, so facing the difficulty of development, new technology, and short cycle.

Based on the principles and methods such as single -group liquid rocket engines, engineering thermodynamics, chemical engineering, material mechanics and structural mechanics, 801 solves more than ten key technologies and engineering problems, including the long life of the HAN -based 400 -cow engine, a high reliability structure Design, long -term thermal management, the matching of HAN -based non -toxic pushing agent and its matching high -temperature resistant catalyst, etc., complete the entire process and full -cycle development from schemes, design principles, engineering prototypes to model products.

The HAN Kidota -non -toxic unilateral element 400 -cow engine is the first international engine developed for the non -toxic power of the spacecraft's return cabin to control power. It is also the largest non -toxic single -group element engine developed internationally internationally. During the development process, the 801 captured the international problem of stable work after the thrust of the HAN base engine was amplified, laying a good technical foundation for the genealogy development of the HAN base engine. Conventional pyramid high -toxic single dollar promotion technology realizes non -toxic application process.

It can be said that the new HAN -based non -toxic engine technology reflects the concept of green environmental protection, leads the development of international non -toxic space engine technology, and has played an important role in the innovation and comprehensive effectiveness improvement of my country ’s astronal power technology. Responsibility and responsibility in society. Three "first", re -establishment of high -tech self -reliance and self -reliance

In response to the long life requirements of the space station for more than 15 years, the 801 innovatively contributed three "firsts" to Tianhe's core compartment in the fields of promoting agents, high -efficiency Hall Electric Promotion, and rail maintenance.

The self -replenishment of the promotion agent for the first time. Pushing agent is the basis for the continuous operation of the space station. In order to ensure that the pushing agent inside the cargo ship after the meeting is more accurately supplemented to the core cabin, 801 proposed an independent supplementary design plan for the first time, developed an intelligent promotion manager, wrote more than 300 fault plans, and innovatively innovatively managed to innovately. The supplementary process has been modularized to make the entire supplementary process not rely on ground instruction intervention or astronauts auxiliary operations, which can be completed independently, providing a strong guarantee for the long -term operation of the space station.

For the first time, Hall Electric is used to promote the engine to participate in the function of the space station position control. In order to compensate the space station in the rail operation, the orbit is attenuated due to the atmospheric resistance factors. At the same time, the consumption of chemical propulsion agents is saved, and the 801 proposes the use of high -efficiency Hall Electric propulsion technical solutions. The core compartment is equipped with four independent Hall power promoting engines. This is also the first time that my country has applied the electrical advancement system to the manned spacecraft.

In 1994, 801 took the lead in conducting Hall Electric Promotion Technology and Application Research in China in 1994, and developed my country's first Hall thrust device, the first multi -mode Hall thrust device, and the first set of Hall power promotion systems. The first space for electricity to promote the fourth grasp of Hall Electric's promotion technology after the Russia, the United States, and the European Air Bureau. In 2020, my country's first 20 -kilowatt high -power Hall thrust device successfully completed the ignition test, achieving the thrust of my country's Hall Electric's thrust from the cow to a cow -level.


For the first time, a plan to replace the maintenance electricity promotion equipment for the astronaut. After the power consumption of electricity and the termination of Hall thrust device, the power promotion function can be achieved by replacement and maintenance of the rail. The 801 team combined with actual needs and product risk assessment, comprehensively considering the needs of astronauts and product efficiency, and designing a variety of important equipment for promoting systems to replace the maintenance by spacemen's outlets on the track.

As an important force in the development field of my country's manned space engineering space aircraft, 801 always adheres to the spirit of manned aerospace spirit with "special hardships, fighting, particularly capable, especially dedicated," Develop work.


Thirty years of wind and rain, independent innovation in 30 years, and excellent achievements in the thirty years, aiming at the forefront of manned aerospace technology, 801 courage to innovate, independently breakthrough and mastered many key -space aerospace technologies, obtained 131 patents, provincial and ministerial levels, The above 31 science and technology awards have helped China ’s manned space industry that continues to narrow the gap with the world's advanced level. Towards the sea of ​​stars, for the better future, 801 will continue to provide strong power support for the manned space project, step by step to unveil the mystery of the universe, and take the dream into reality.

(Guangming Daily All -Media Reporter Cui Xingyi Correspondent Marin Gu Shuaihua)

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