How to define the pond?How to distinguish ponds, lakes and wetlands?
Author:China Green Fair Time:2022.09.25
Recently, China ’s biological diversity protection and Green Development Foundation (referred to as the China Green Fair, Green Association) International Department learned about a difference and connection between the three internationally renowned journals. We can define the pond as a small and shallow water body -but how do we distinguish it from the lake or wetland? The International Department of the Green Club now compiles this article for reference and understanding of interesting readers.
(Source: Open Access Government)
A recent study can provide evidence of data -driven pond function definition and unique ecological function of the pond. The impact of this meaning on science and policies may be wider than what people first realized.
We can point out a pond, but can we define a pond and distinguish it from the lake or wetland? A new study led by Cornell University gave the answer.
"Makedith Holgerson) commented:" Lack of a general pond definition will cause a lot of confusion. From people's doubts about the differences between ponds and lakes, to different aquatic definitions between government agencies Monitoring projects, even to accurately simulate global carbon budgets. "Maredei Holgson is an assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, and one of the first authors of" The Functional Definition of Differential Ponds and Lakes and Wetland ". The study was published on June 21, 2022 in the Scientific Report.
She added: "We want to evaluate how scientists and policy makers define ponds, and check whether the ponds are different from lakes and wetlands."
(Picture source: Ian Wilson)
Definition: The pond is a small and shallow water body
Studies have the following conclusions. There are ponds:
l Small shallow water
L maximum surface area is 5 hectares
L maximum depth of 5 meters
l Emerging vegetation below 30%
Globally, hundreds of millions of ponds may even have billions of ponds. More than 95%of the water bodies are small (less than 10 hectares).
Without sufficient research and not obtained proper protection
It is understood that this humble pond has not been fully studied. The monitoring and protection of the federal and state basically ignored this.
There is no doubt that the number of them makes the monitoring work difficult, but some problems also originate from the institution that cannot define them, or it cannot distinguish them from the lake or wetland. This neglect has an impact on the accuracy of climate modeling.
Holgson and her team analyzed the more than 500 definitions of ponds in the scientific papers, and encoded them into different descriptors, such as the surface area or depth, and whether the description was qualitative or quantitative.
"We found that researchers did not quote a definition, which are usually qualitative. For example, the pond is described as 'small'."
In a survey of states responsible for water monitoring and protection, the group found that half of the state had legislation of ponds, but only one state (Michigan) defined ponds. Other states will designate ponds as state waters, or merge it with lakes or wetlands.
However, ponds are different from lakes or wetlands. Further research on the literature proves that ponds have a unique ecological structure and function, which makes them have problems with the classification of lakes or wetlands.
"We have studied parameters such as the total productivity, breathing, chlorophyll levels, greenhouse gas emissions, daytime temperature range, and gas exchange rates with atmosphere. The surface area is nonlinear, indicating that the role of the pond is indeed different. "
The team also studied the relationship between these ecosystem indicators and depth and emerging vegetation. They discovered non -linear relationships. They use the threshold of the water body function with the surface area, depth and emergency vegetation changes to determine its definition.
Ponds should not maintain the same monitoring standards as lakes or wetlands
Holgson explained that ponds should not maintain the same monitoring standards as lakes or wetlands because they have such a unique outline. "For example, ponds may naturally have high nutrient concentration and high methane flux. We may need to formulate unique water quality standards to monitor ponds."
More research is needed to improve the definition, and better understand the boundaries between wetland and ponds, ponds and lakes, as well as how the size, depth, vegetation, and other variables (such as the degree of water body) affect the function of the pond and its classification. But this is a beginning.
Holgson commented: "At the beginning of the study, we uncertain whether our research can give us a new definition that makes us confident, but we think that the figures we provide are reliable and a good starting point for further research . We did call for more research, especially the border between wetland, ponds and lakes. "
Holgson said: "Study and monitor ponds can help us understand how these global rich water bodies operate. There is also an important human factors. So many people are in touch with the ponds, they have been catching frogs or in a frog from childhood or in their childhood. The story of learning fishing nearby. "
For the original text: https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/how-can-define-a-pond/139355//139355//139355//139355//139355//139355/
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